Reaching out. The place of Small Multi-Grade Schools in Developing Countries: The Case of Ethiopia.

November 26th, 2012

Recent publication:

 

Reaching out. The place of Small Multi-Grade Schools in Developing Countries: The Case of Ethiopia.

 

Authors: Karl Jan Solstad, Wanna Leka and Alan Sigsworth

2012 Paperback. 250 pages. Prices (incl. postage): US$ 30; EUR 25; GBP 20; NOK 200; ETHB 60 (for Ethiopian customers only)

ISBN 978-99944-993-5-9

Publisher: Image Printers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

 

Book details:

The main title highlights a major and important obstacle to reaching the generally agreed upon EFA goal by 2015. In many developing countries, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of people live in rural areas with poorly developed infrastructure for school transportation, the tradition of providing relatively large primary schools actually renders school enrolment or regular school attendance impossible for large numbers of school age children, especially girls. Thus, education does not “reach out” to many children.

 

The sub-title sets the scene; when children are unable to reach the school, the school provision must be organized in such a way that basic education reaches the children. The logical solution in sparsely populated areas is to establish networks of small school within reach by a school walk of not more than two-three km. Economically and practically such schools inevitably need to be small one- or two-teacher schools applying multi-grade teaching.

 

During the first three chapters we present a short account of the multi-grade scene, past and present, in industrialised as well as in developing countries, before discussing current conceptions of why literacy and basic education are so vital both from an individual and societal perspective. The point is made that not all elementary schooling is of great value; necessarily it must stimulate learning generally and foster independence, democratic skills and entrepreneurial attitudes among the learners. The education provided needs to be of quality. During the next three chapters we portray the features of quality small multi-grade schools serving small rural communities. The “ideal” features are based on extensive research and literature studies on rural education which are then translated jnto a project proposal for the UNESCO and the Norwegian Foreign Ministry. The remaining three chapters, which make up the major part of the book, are devoted to the presentation and discussion of empirical data from internal and external evaluations connected to a follow-up of several multi-grade schools and their communities in rural Ethiopia. The findings strongly indicate that by locating small schools near the pupils homes, by necessity employing multi.-grade teaching strategies, school enrolment may be greatly boosted, especially for girls, without in any way impairing the quality of the education offered.

 

Whilst the focus is upon Ethiopia, the target country for the multi-grade set up and evaluation, the findings and conclusions are seen as generalisable for developing countries, and particularly so for sub-Saharan African countries.

 

 

Reaching out – The place of Small Multi-Grade Schools in Developing Countries: The Case of Ethiopia. The book first clarifies the reasons why universal schooling is a must if social, political and economic development is likely to occur in poor, predominantly rural, developing countries. The point is made that the quality of the education offered is as important as the mere provision. As part of a UNESCO/Norwegian initiative for a large scale development project in sub-Saharan countries, an outline of high quality multi-grade schools to reach children, especially girls, in sparsely populated areas of developing countries was formulated. Although the planned large-scale development programme never materialised, the project ideas were sought implemented in several Ethiopian rural communities. The experiences gained during a five year period of multi-grade schooling are presented. The findings strongly indicate that by locating small schools near the pupils’ homes, by necessity employing multi-grade teaching strategies, school enrolment may be greatly boosted, especially for girls, without in any way impairing the quality of the education offered. More specifically, our data also shed light on the various ways in which small schools close to the living areas of the pupils help in bringing the children to school beyond that of the direct effect of short school walks. Providing big primary schools located in the neighbouring rural town may deter illiterate peasant families from sending their children, especially girls, to school even when physical distances are not especially long. Having a small school in the local community provides opportunities for a positive relationship between school and parents, making education less alien and school enrolment more likely. Small schools in relatively homogeneous rural communities are also in a better position than bigger, more distant schools, to negotiate school schedules which take into account local seasonal demands on the children’s labour, as well as local ceremonial occasions. Furthermore, small schools close to the communities they are serving stimulate the feeling of ownership by the parents and community members, and thus facilitate the involvement of local people in the upkeep and improvement of the school building and playground. The book concludes by offering governments and NGOs altogether eight recommendations for further efforts to approach the EFA target.

Lisbeth Refsgaard from Norway writes…

September 29th, 2009

Lisbeth Refsgaard from Norway, who at 13 (nearly 14!) was the youngest participant in the IRN Forum in Udaipur, writes…

Because Karen (Refsgaard) and John (Bryden) were participating in this Forum, I got to see India, something that I’m very thankful for. Although it was a conference for adults , I found some of it quite interesting. A lot of it was hard to understand, it was difficult language with many new words. But it was interesting to meet so many people who were supportive, and wanted to help and see how rural communities in India work. I realized that if you are a good speaker and know your stuff it is much easier for the listeners to follow. For example, I went to Petter Jensen’s presentation about ecological sanitation systems and he knew his stuff very well, so he didn’t look at the screen all the time. And he also brought some humor into the presentation at times. It was very precise, and a good presentation.

The field trip was great! Karen (my mum) and I went on the Seva Mandir trip and I found a lot of the people in the villages smiling and very happy. It was good to see, and although we saw a lot of discrimination against women, many of the women also seemed happy. It didn’t seem to bother the women we talked to, but you never know.

I also met Baburao Baviskar, actually before the conference, but we talked mostly during the conference. He told me a lot about the caste system in India. That I enjoyed very much, because that is something I am interested in. John had already told me some things about caste, but when I talk to Baburao I got to know even more. He also told me about the Hinduism, and it was quite a coincidence, because that was what we were learning about in school just at the same time. It’s fascinating talking to someone with so much knowledge!

There were not only people from India, Britain and Norway, but also from Italy, Africa, and Israel, Canada, Pakistan, and Australia, and many other places That was good. because then we got a lot of different peoples’ views on the things we discussed. I liked it when …(the woman from kenya) stood up in the last session of the Forum and made us clap along with her song. I think it raised our spirits!
There were only three things I found a bit disappointing. First, it was always the same people participating in the discussions and asking the questions, but I bet that has something to do with each ones culture and personality. Second, the microphones didn’t always work that well, but I think that was just a technical problem. And that can be solved! Third, Baburao’s daughter, Amita, coudn’t come. I was very excited about meeting her, and was so disappointed!

In the end, all I want to say is that I found the conference great and inspiring. It was a wonderful experience to see both positive and negative sides of India. It gave me many things to think about when I got home, and inspired me to return again some day!download 8MM 2 Police Academy 4: Citizens on Patrol movie download Welcome to the Jungle movies Hot Shots! Part Deux movie Harper film

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Field Trip: Sadhna – A women’s handicraft enterprise

September 29th, 2009

International Rural Network Forum – Udaipur 2009
Field Trip: Sadhna – A women’s handicraft enterprise
The program: Sheshwi village – a gathering to meet with local artisans; Kalan Sadan – the production unit in Udaipur; then the Sadhna Shop.

a reflection …
There were eight Forum delegates who boarded the bus to Sheshwi village, along with our guide for the day, Mudha. After about a 40 minute ride into the rural hillside we turned off the bitumen onto a dirt road and headed for Sheshwi. As the bus neared the village we drove through a flock of sheep being herded by two shepherds and then as we entered the village the bus negotiated a group of goats. Children were playing in the street and curious about we visitors. As we drove into the village centre the buildings came closer together – the road narrowed – the buildings seemed to swallow up the bus. Surely the bus would have to stop and reverse. I looked out the window and in a doorway stood a woman with a look of fright on her face – our faces were not more than a few feet from each other. But the bus continued edging its way between the buildings.
Eventually the bus stopped – but not to reverse. Simply to let us alight. [Later, when we returned to the bus it was parked in an open square, under the shade of a tree, facing the way which we had come –amazing driving.]
We edged our way around the bus, between it and the walls of the buildings and made our way down a laneway to an airy room. When we arrived there were just two women sitting on the floor in this space. Over the next 30-40 minutes, as they finished their morning house chores, another 25-30 women arrived, bringing with them their sewing.
At first our conversation, through Mudha, our interpreter, was rather stilted. We learnt that the women artisans in the village must train for three months (6 hours a day, 6 days a week) before they are able to work on commercial contracts. We learnt that upon “graduation” each woman is given a mat on which to sit to do her sewing, along with a box for her needles and threads. We learnt that Sadhna now receives large projects from clothing manufacturers. We learnt that there is a leader in the village for each group of 12-15 women. This leader is responsible for ensuring that the work is completed on time and to the required standard. We learnt that Sadhna, which has now been running for 21 years, has been so successful that it has its own superannuation scheme for members whose eyesight fails as they become older and can no longer sew; as well as an accident insurance scheme. And we learnt that there are more women wanting to work than can be accommodated by the current contracts and general demand for goods.
Then we were offered tea and a delicious brew of milky chai arrived. The women then asked us to sing a song. What could we sing? As there were two Australians and an American who knew Waltzing Matilda, we decided on that, and the Italian contingent sang a rousing version of Bella Ciao. Then it was the village women’s turn to sing, and what a beautiful song they sang; a song of “waking up”.
Now that the relationship had been nurtured with songs and drinks it was time for some more serious conversation, but not before we had each been asked if we were married and how many children we had. One of the conference delegates asked what social improvements had been facilitated by the sewing work. A young village women spoke for what seemed like four or five minutes. The interpretation (much shorter) focussed on the issue of male acceptance of the women doing paid work and bringing in an income; and the struggle, in particular for some women. Mudha told the story of the woman whose mat and box were thrown down the well by her husband. The overall impression however, was that things are improving in regard to male acceptance of the value (both economic and social) of the sewing work. When asked what their aspirations were this same young woman said that she wanted to travel some more. Sadhna has already had several overseas exhibitions which some of the women have accompanied and several of the women seemed keen to travel some more.
As I sat there in the room with these women, a sense of their happiness and well-being flowed over me. Despite the somewhat awkward situation many of the women seemed to have a serenity and peacefulness I have rarely, if ever, experienced in such a gathering.
It was then time for some simple food – seeds and grains served with that delicious sweet we had been served at the opening dinner: wee dumplings in a sweet, deep red sauce. As we thanked our hosts for their hospitality and for sharing their time and themselves with us we were asked to spread the word about their work and perhaps find some international markets for their products.
The whole time we had been in the room children had been gathering at the open doorway and as we left we had to make our way through the crowd of children eager to get close to us. Back at the bus it was photo time before heading back through the narrow streets and off to Lake Udai Sagar for a picnic lunch on our way to Udaipur to the Sadhna production unit, Kalan Sadan.
Here we saw the women at work at their sewing machines creating the garments that would go out to the villages to be embroidered. We met the woman who sources the fabrics and were shown the cottons and silks sourced from all over India. We saw the cutting out tables, and the sample making. [Each leader from the villages will come in and create a sample for a new order, then take it back to the village and teach her group the embroidery design.]. We saw the women on the irons – what hot work in a hot city.
Then it was off to the Sadhna shop where we shopped, and shopped.

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September 5th, 2009

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August 26th, 2009

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August 18th, 2009

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